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The Kingdom of God in the Catholic Tradition achieved prominence in the documents of Vatican II. particularly in the documents regarding the Church. Kingdom of Sorrow oder auch KoS ist eine gegründete Band. Gründungsmitglieder und Songwriter sind Jamey Jasta (Hatebreed, Icepick) und Kirk. Kingdom of God (Of Heaven), The:: (he basileia ton ouranon; he basileia tou theou): I. MEANING AND ORIGIN OF THE TERM 1. Place in the Gospels 2. Ansichten Bvb europa league live stream Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Relation to the Old Testament Daniel, etc. Its use by Jesus is by far its most interesting aspect; for, in the Synoptists, at least, it is His watchword, or a comprehensive term for the whole of His Beste Spielothek in Stein finden. Old Testament Beste Spielothek in Kirchzarten finden Testament. International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia. With this sublime conception the actual monarchy was only a compromise, the reigning wolfsburg real highlights passing for Yahweh's representative on earth.

The Kingdom Government and the Republic Kingdom Fusing a Kingdom With a Democracy. Information--Knowledge From the King Pt 2. Knowledge is Very Important.

Seek the Kingdom, A Divine Command. Kingdom of Light or Darkness? Where Are the Ambassadors? The Kingdom and His Birth Kingdom His Original Mission and Purpose.

Meditate on These Kingdom Principles. Preach and Teach the Gospel of the Kingdom. The Power of Our Position. The Kingdom Reintroduced Pt 2. Preparing for the Indwelling.

The New World Order Kingdom The New Order and Its Citizens. The Kingdom is the Good News Pt 2. The King's Viewpoint of Giving Kingdom Your Faith is Essential in the Kingdom.

The King's Will and the King's Word. Your Goals, His Purpose Honoring the Father Through the Son Kingdom Living in the Kingdom Culture. Kingdom Citizens Are Examples.

Student or Disciple of the Kingdom? Pt 2 Kingdom Ephesus, Its Believers' Characteristics Pt 2. Pergamos, Its Believers' Characteristics Pt 2.

Thyatira, Its Believers' Characteristics Pt 2. Philadelphia, Its Believers' Characteristics Pt 2. Laodicea, Its Believers' Characteristics Pt 2.

When Will the End Come? Authorized Power for the Heavenly Government Kingdom Never Assume in Marriage Pt 2 Kingdom Love in Marriage Needs to be Refreshed.

The Simplicity of the Kingdom Gospel. Kingdom Culture Displayed to the Blind Kingdom Who or What is Your god?

Staying Focused on Your Purpose Pt 2. Singleness, Divorce and the Results Pt 2 Kingdom Singleness From God's Viewpoint Kingdom God Presents, You Choose.

Who Is the Holy Spirit? Return Of the Governor Kingdom Leaning On the Governor Kingdom Where Does the Governor Reside?

Your Legacy and the Kingdom. The Misrepresentation of the Kingdom Kingdom Earthly Holidays Misrepresent the Kingdom Kingdom Being Deceived Without a Solid Foundation.

What Profit Has Righteousness in the Kingdom? Christianity Misrepresents the Kingdom Pt 2. Where Are the Masculine-Thinking Men?

Ch 1 Pt 2 Kingdom Focusing On the Correct Source. Facing Life Successfully and Effectively Pt 2. Your Faith in Jesus the Christ: The Colonial Intent of God.

What Is Your Place in the Kingdom? Culture, What It Is Pt 2. Principles to Recognize People's Influence on Vision. Passing Through to the Next.

What is a Kingdom? Now I will give you a little more than a synopsis of what a kingdom is. A kingdom is a governing impact of a king's will over a territory or domain; his influence over a people Every kingdom must have a king, but it is also true that every king is automatically a "lord".

It is this quality of lordship that distinguishes a king from a president, a prime minister, a mayor or a governor.

In fact, a king's lordship makes him different from any other kind of human leader. Lordship makes the king unique. The most common word in scripture is the word "lord".

Keep in mind that this word does not exist in a democracy, socialist society or a republic except for the word landlord, in reference to the one who owns and rents land to others.

Landlord is the only common remnant of kingdoms in modern government and Western societies; but this concept of lord is one of the fundamental principles of a kingdom.

Now let us speak on a king for awhile. A king's sovereignty is absolute. He isn't voted into nor out of office or power.

His sovereignty is by birthright--or should I say a right of birth. The same is true of a king's lordship. All kings are automatically lords. Keep this in mind--a king relates to dominion, while a lord relates to domain.

The word dominion refers to the king's authority--his power. The word domain refers to the territory, the property, the geographical area over which his authority extends.

In , Francesco Crispi became Prime Minister and began focusing government efforts on foreign policy. Crispi worked to build Italy as a great world power through increased military expenditures, advocacy of expansionism [35] and trying to win the favor of Germany.

Italy joined the Triple Alliance which included both Germany and Austria—Hungary in and which remained officially intact until While helping Italy develop strategically, he continued trasformismo and became authoritarian, once suggesting the use of martial law to ban opposition parties.

Francesco Crispi was Prime Minister for a total of six years, from until and again from until Bosworth says of his foreign policy:.

Crispi pursued policies whose openly aggressive character would not be equaled until the days of the Fascist regime. Crispi increased military expenditure, talked cheerfully of a European conflagration, and alarmed his German or British friends with this suggestions of preventative attacks on his enemies.

His policies were ruinous, both for Italy's trade with France, and, more humiliatingly, for colonial ambitions in Eastern Africa. Crispi's lust for territory there was thwarted when on 1 March , the armies of Ethiopian Emperor Menelik routed Italian forces at Adowa Crispi, whose private life he was perhaps a trigamist and personal finances Crispi greatly admired the United Kingdom, but was unable to get British assistance for his aggressive foreign policy and turned instead to Germany.

It remained officially intact until and prevented hostilities between Italy and Austria, which controlled border regions that Italy claimed.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, Italy emulated the Great Powers in acquiring colonies, especially in the scramble to take control of Africa that took place in the s.

Italy was weak in military and economic resources in comparison with Britain, France and Germany, but it proved difficult due to popular resistance and it was unprofitable due to heavy military costs and the lesser economic value of spheres of influence remaining when Italy began to colonize.

Britain was eager to block French influence and assisted Italy in gaining territory of the Red Sea. A number of colonial projects were undertaken by the government.

These were done to gain support of Italian nationalists and imperialists, who wanted to rebuild a Roman Empire. Italy had already large settlements in Alexandria , Cairo and Tunis.

Italy first attempted to gain colonies through negotiations with other world powers to make colonial concessions, but these negotiations failed.

Italy also sent missionaries to uncolonized lands to investigate the potential for Italian colonization. The most promising and realistic of these were parts of Africa.

Italian missionaries had already established a foothold at Massawa in present-day Eritrea in the s and had entered deep into the Ethiopian Empire.

The beginning of colonialism came in , shortly after the fall of Egyptian rule in Khartoum , when Italy landed soldiers at Massawa in East Africa.

In , Italy annexed Massawa by force, creating the colony of Italian Eritrea. The trade was promoted by the low duties paid on Italian trade.

Italy exported manufactured products and imported coffee, beeswax and hides. In , Ethiopia led by Emperor Menelik II abandoned an agreement signed in to follow Italian foreign policy and Italy used this renunciation as a reason to invade Ethiopia.

In response, Britain decided to back the Italians to challenge Russian influence in Africa and declared that all of Ethiopia was within the sphere of Italian interest.

On the verge of war, Italian militarism and nationalism reached a peak, with Italians flocking to the Royal Italian Army , hoping to take part in the upcoming war.

The Italian army failed on the battlefield and were overwhelmed by a huge Ethiopian army at the Battle of Adwa. At that point, the Italian invasion force was forced to retreat into Eritrea.

The failed Ethiopian campaign was an international embarrassment to Italy, as it was one of the few major military victories scored by the Africans against an imperial power at this time.

On 7 June , the concession was taken into Italian possession and administered by an Italian consul. These provinces together formed what became known as Libya.

The war ended only one year later, but the occupation resulted in acts of discrimination against Libyans such as the forced deportation of Libyans to the Tremiti Islands in October By , one third of these Libyan refugees had died from a lack of food and shelter.

Although his first government quickly collapsed one year later, Giolitti returned in to lead Italy's government during a fragmented period that lasted until Giolitti had spent his earlier life as a civil servant and then took positions within the cabinets of Crispi.

Giolitti was the first long-term Italian Prime Minister in many years because he mastered the political concept of trasformismo by manipulating, coercing and bribing officials to his side.

In elections during Giolitti's government voting fraud was common and Giolitti helped improve voting only in well-off, more supportive areas, while attempting to isolate and intimidate poor areas where opposition was strong.

In , Giolitti's government sent forces to occupy Libya. While the success of the Libyan War improved the status of the nationalists, it did not help Giolitti's administration as a whole.

The government attempted to discourage criticism by speaking about Italy's strategic achievements and inventiveness of their military in the war: Italy was the first country to use the airship for military purposes and undertook aerial bombing on the Ottoman forces.

Giolitti returned as Prime Minister only briefly in , but the era of liberalism was effectively over in Italy. The and elections saw gains made by Socialist, Catholic and nationalist parties at the expense of the traditionally dominant Liberals and Radicals , who were increasingly fractured and weakened as a result.

In the lead-up to World War I , the Kingdom of Italy faced a number of short-term and long-term problems in determining its allies and objectives.

Italy's recent success in occupying Libya as a result of the Italo-Turkish War had sparked tension with its Triple Alliance allies, the German Empire and Austria-Hungary , because both countries had been seeking closer relations with the Ottoman Empire.

In Munich, Germans reacted to Italy's aggression by singing anti-Italian songs. France felt betrayed by Italy's support of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War , opening the possibility of war erupting between the two countries.

These islands had been formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire. Italy and Greece were also in open rivalry over the desire to occupy Albania.

A major hindrance to Italy's decision on what to do about the war was the political instability throughout Italy in After the formation of the government of Prime Minister Antonio Salandra in March , the government attempted to win the support of nationalists and moved to the political right.

Militarist nationalists and anti-militarist leftists fought on the streets until the Italian Royal Army forcefully restored calm after having used thousands of men to put down the various protesting forces.

Despite Italy's official alliance to Germany and membership in the Triple Alliance , the Kingdom of Italy initially remained neutral, claiming that the Triple Alliance was only for defensive purposes.

In Italy, society was divided over the war: Italian socialists generally opposed the war and supported pacificism, while nationalists militantly supported the war.

Long-time nationalists Gabriele D'Annunzio and Luigi Federzoni and an obscure Marxist journalist and new convert to nationalist sentiment, future Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini , demanded that Italy join the war.

For nationalists, Italy had to maintain its alliance with the Central Powers in order to gain colonial territories at the expense of France.

For the liberals, the war presented Italy a long-awaited opportunity to use an alliance with the Entente to gain certain Italian-populated and other territories from Austria-Hungary, which had long been part of Italian patriotic aims since unification.

In , relatives of Italian revolutionary and republican hero Giuseppe Garibaldi died on the battlefield of France, where they had volunteered to fight.

Federzoni used the memorial services to declare the importance of Italy joining the war and to warn the monarchy of the consequences of continued disunity in Italy if it did not:.

Italy has awaited this since her truly national war, in order to feel unified at last, renewed by the unanimous action and identical sacrifice of all her sons.

Today, while Italy still wavers before the necessity imposed by history, the name of Garibaldi, resanctified by blood, rises again to warn her that she will not be able to defeat the revolution save by fighting and winning her national war.

Mussolini used his new newspaper Il Popolo d'Italia and his strong oratorical skills to urge nationalists and patriotic revolutionary leftists to support Italy's entry into the war to gain back Italian populated territories from Austria-Hungary, by saying "enough of Libya , and on to Trento and Trieste ".

With nationalist sentiment firmly on the side of reclaiming Italian territories of Austria-Hungary, Italy entered negotiations with the Triple Entente.

The negotiations ended successfully in April when the London Pact was brokered with the Italian government.

The pact ensured Italy the right to attain all Italian-populated lands it wanted from Austria-Hungary, as well as concessions in the Balkan Peninsula and suitable compensation for any territory gained by the United Kingdom and France from Germany in Africa.

Italy joined the Triple Entente in its war against Austria-Hungary. The reaction in Italy was divided: Giolitti claimed that Italy would fail in the war, predicting high numbers of mutinies, Austro-Hungarian occupation of even more Italian territory and that the failure would produce a catastrophic rebellion that would destroy the liberal-democratic monarchy and the liberal-democratic secular institutions of the state.

The outset of the campaign against Austria-Hungary looked to initially favor Italy: Austria-Hungary's army was spread to cover its fronts with Serbia and Russia and Italy had a numerical superiority against the Austro-Hungarian Army.

However, this advantage was never fully utilized because Italian military commander Luigi Cadorna insisted on a dangerous frontal assault against Austria-Hungary in an attempt to occupy the Slovenian plateau and Ljubljana.

This assault would put the Italian army not far away from Austria-Hungary's imperial capital, Vienna. After eleven failed offensives with enormous loss of life, the Italian campaign to take Vienna collapsed.

Upon entering the war, geography was also a difficulty for Italy as its border with Austria-Hungary was along mountainous terrain.

In May , Italian forces at , men along the border outnumbered the Austrian and Germans almost precisely four to one. Italy's warships were outclassed by the Austro-Hungarian fleet and the situation was made more dire for Italy in that both the French Navy and the British Royal Navy were not sent into the Adriatic Sea.

Their respective governments viewed the Adriatic Sea as "far too dangerous to operate in due the concentration of the Austro-Hungarian fleet there".

Morale fell among Italian soldiers who lived a tedious life when not on the front lines, as they were forbidden to enter theaters or bars, even when on leave.

However, when battles were about to occur alcohol was made freely available to the soldiers in order to reduce tension before the battle. In order to escape the tedium after battles, some groups of soldiers worked to create improvized whorehouses.

D'Annunzio himself would participate in a number of paramilitary raids on Austrian positions along the Adriatic Sea coastline during the war and temporaly lost his sight after an air raid.

The Italian government became increasingly aggravated in with the passive nature of the Serbian army , which had not engaged in a serious offensive against Austria-Hungary for months.

After , the situation for Italy grew steadily worse when the Austro-Hungarian Army managed to push the Italian Army back into Italy as far as Verona and Padova in their Strafexpedition.

At the same time, Italy faced a shortage of warships, increased attacks by submarines, soaring freight charges threatening the ability to supply food to soldiers, lack of raw materials and equipment and Italians faced high taxes to pay for the war.

Finally in November , Cadorna ended offensive operations and began a defensive approach. In , France, the United Kingdom and the United States offered to send troops to Italy to help it fend off the offensive of the Central Powers , but the Italian government refused as Sonnino did not want Italy to be seen as a client state of the Allies and preferred isolation as the more brave alternative.

The Russian Empire collapsed in a Russian Revolution , eventually resulting in the rise of the communist Bolshevik regime of Vladimir Lenin.

The resulting marginalization of the Eastern Front allowed for more Austro-Hungarian and German forces to arrive on the front against Italy.

Internal dissent against the war grew with increasingly poor economic and social conditions in Italy due to the strain of the war.

Much of the profit of the war was being made in the cities, while rural areas were losing income. After the Battle of Caporetto in , Italian forces were forced far back into Italian territory and the humiliation led to the arrival of Vittorio Emanuele Orlando as Prime Minister, who managed to solve some of Italy's wartime problems.

Orlando abandoned the previous isolationist approach to the war and increased coordination with the Allies and the use of the convoy system to fend off submarine attack, allowed Italy to be able to end food shortages from February onward and Italy received more raw materials from the Allies.

The Italian government was infuriated with the Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson , the President of the United States , as the advocation of national self-determination meant that Italy would not gain Dalmazia as had been promised in the Treaty of London.

The opposing armies repeatedly failed afterwards in major battles such as Battle of Asiago and the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. The Italian Army crushed the Austrian Army in the latter battle.

Austria-Hungary ended the fighting against Italy with the armistice on 4 November which ended World War I on this front one week before the widely understood 11 November armistice on the Western front.

During the war, the Italian Royal Army increased in size from 15, men in to , men in , with 5 million recruits in total entering service during the war.

Italian society was divided between the majority pacifists who opposed Italian involvement in the war and the minority of pro-war nationalists who had condemned the Italian government for not having immediately gone to war with Austria-Hungary in The talks provided little territorial gain to Italy because during the peace talks Wilson promised freedom to all European nationalities to form their own nation states.

Furthermore, the British and French decided to divide the German overseas colonies into mandates of their own, with Italy receiving none of them.

Italy also gained no territory from the breakup of the Ottoman Empire , despite a proposal being issued to Italy by the United Kingdom and France during the war, only to see these nations carve up the Ottoman Empire between themselves also exploting the forces of the Arab Revolt.

Despite this, Orlando agreed to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which caused uproar against his government. Civil unrest erupted in Italy between nationalists who supported the war effort and opposed the " mutilated victory " as nationalists referred to it and leftists who were opposed to the war.

Furious over the peace settlement, the Italian nationalist poet Gabriele D'Annunzio led disaffected war veterans and nationalists to form the Free State of Fiume in September His popularity among nationalists led him to be called Il Duce "The Leader" and he used blackshirted paramilitary in his assault on Fiume.

The leadership title of Duce and the blackshirt paramilitary uniform would later be adopted by the Fascist movement of Benito Mussolini.

The demand for the Italian annexation of Fiume spread to all sides of the political spectrum, including Mussolini's Fascists.

Italy annexed territories that included not only ethnically-mixed places, but also exclusively ethnic Slovene and Croat places, especially within the former Austrian Littoral and the former Duchy of Carniola.

They included one-third of the entire territory inhabited by Slovenes at the time and one-quarter of the entire Slovene population, [88] who was during the 20 years long period of Italian Fascism — subjected to forced Italianization alongside 25, ethnic Germans.

According to author Paul N. Hehn, "the treaty left half a million Slavs inside Italy, while only a few hundred Italians in the fledgling Yugoslav i.

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes renamed Yugoslavia in state". Prior to World War I, Mussolini had opposed military conscription, protested against Italy's occupation of Libya and was the editor of the Socialist Party's official newspaper, Avanti!

During the war, Mussolini served in the Army and was wounded once. It was originally dominated by patriotic socialist and syndicalist veterans who opposed the pacifist policies of the Italian Socialist Party.

The Fascists initially had a platform far more inclined to the left, promising social revolution, proportional representation, women's suffrage partly realized in and dividing private property held by estates.

On 15 April , the Fascists made their debut in political violence, when a group of members from the Fasci di Combattimento attacked the offices of Avanti!

Recognizing the failures of the Fascists' initial revolutionary and left-leaning policy, Mussolini moved the organization away from the left and turned the revolutionary movement into an electoral movement in named the Partito Nazionale Fascista National Fascist Party.

The party echoed the nationalist themes of D'Annunzio and rejected parliamentary democracy while still operating within it in order to destroy it.

Mussolini changed his original revolutionary policies, such as moving away from anti-clericalism to supporting the Roman Catholic Church and abandoned his public opposition to the monarchy.

In , Giolitti had come back as Prime Minister in an attempt to solve the deadlock. One year later, Giolitti's government had already become unstable and a growing socialist opposition further endangered his government.

Giolitti believed that the Fascists could be toned down and used to protect the state from the socialists. He decided to include Fascists on his electoral list for the elections.

The Fascists rejected Giolitti's offers and joined with socialists in bringing down his government. In October , Mussolini took advantage of a general strike by workers and announced his demands to the government to give the Fascist Party political power or face a coup.

With no immediate response, a small number of Fascists began a long trek across Italy to Rome which was known as the " March on Rome ", claiming to Italians that Fascists were intending to restore law and order.

The King was forced to decide which of the two rival movements in Italy would form the new government: Mussolini's Fascists or the anti-royalist Italian Socialist Party , ultimately deciding to endorse the Fascists.

On 28 October , the King invited Mussolini to become Prime Minister, allowing Mussolini and the Fascist Party to pursue their political ambitions as long as they supported the monarchy and its interests.

At 39, Mussolini was young compared to other Italian and European leaders. His supporters named him "Il Duce" "The Leader".

A personality cult was developed that portrayed him as the nation's saviour which was aided by the personal popularity he held with Italians already, which would remain strong until Italy faced continuous military defeats in World War II.

Upon taking power, Mussolini formed a legislative coalition with nationalists, liberals and populists. However, goodwill by the Fascists towards parliamentary democracy faded quickly: Following the election, Socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated after calling for an annulment of the elections because of the irregularities.

Following the assassination, the Socialists walked out of parliament, allowing Mussolini to pass more authoritarian laws.

In , Mussolini accepted responsibility for the Fascist violence in and promised that dissenters would be dealt with harshly. Before the speech, Blackshirts smashed opposition presses and beat up several of Mussolini's opponents.

This event is considered the onset of undisguised Fascist dictatorship in Italy, though it would be before the Fascist Party was formally declared the only legal party in the country.

Over the next four years, Mussolini eliminated nearly all checks and balances on his power. In , Mussolini passed a law that declared he was responsible only to the King and made him the sole person able to determine Parliament's agenda.

Local autonomy was swept away and appointed podestas replaced communal mayors and councils. Soon after all other parties were banned in , parliamentary elections were replaced by plebiscites in which the Grand Council nominated a single list of candidates.

You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Greatest Movie Battle Scene? Learn more More Like This. The Last Samurai Black Hawk Down Rise of an Empire Enemy at the Gates A Russian and a German sniper play a game of cat-and-mouse during the Battle of Stalingrad.

Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Balian's Wife Eriq Ebouaney Godfrey de Ibelin Philip Glenister Balian de Ibelin Bronson Webb English Sergeant Nikolaj Coster-Waldau Village Sheriff Steven Robertson Angelic Priest Marton Csokas Guy de Lusignan Alexander Siddig Edit Storyline It is the time of the Crusades during the Middle Ages - the world shaping year collision between Europe and the East.

Be without fear in the face of your enemies. Safeguard the helpless, and do no wrong. English Arabic Latin Italian. Dolby Digital Dolby Digital 5. Edit Did You Know?

Trivia There are approximately visual effects shots in the theatrical cut of the film. There are roughly 1, in the Director's Cut. Goofs After the breach in the wall during the siege on Jerusalem, when the camera pans overhead there is no obvious evidence of rubble despite a relatively large gap.

Quotes [ first lines ] Gravedigger: Clear the road, if you will. Crazy Credits The opening 20th Century Fox logo has a ocher-yellow tint added to it.

If not all seats were filled on the first ballot, a runoff was held shortly afterwards for the remaining vacancies.

Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian populists and classical liberals.

Elections took place in , and Between and , Italy was quasi- de jure Fascist dictatorship, as the constitution formally remained in effect without alteration by the Fascists, though the monarchy also formally accepted Fascist policies and Fascist institutions.

Changes in politics occurred, consisting of the establishment of the Grand Council of Fascism as a government body in , which took control of the government system, as well as the Chamber of Deputies being replaced with the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations as of The monarchs of the House of Savoy who led Italy were:.

The creation of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of concerted efforts of Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula.

After the Revolutions of , the apparent leader of the Italian unification movement was Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi , renowned for his extremely loyal followers.

Though the Kingdom had no physical connection to Rome seen by all as the natural capital of Italy, but still capital of the Papal States , the Kingdom had successfully challenged Austria in the Second Italian War of Independence , liberating Lombardy-Venetia from Austrian rule.

The Kingdom also had established important alliances which helped it improve the possibility of Italian unification, such as with the United Kingdom and France in the Crimean War.

Sardinia was dependent on French protection and in Sardinia was forced to cede territory to France to maintain relations, including Garibaldi's birthplace, Nizza.

Cavour moved to challenge republican unification efforts by Garibaldi by organizing popular revolts in the Papal States and used these revolts as a pretext to invade the country, even though the invasion angered the Roman Catholics , whom he told that the invasion was an effort to protect the Roman Catholic Church from the anti-clerical secularist nationalist republicans of Garibaldi.

Subsequently, the Parliament declared the creation of the Kingdom of Italy on 18 February officially proclaiming it on 17 March [12] composed of both Northern Italy and Southern Italy.

King Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy was then declared King of Italy , though he did not renumber himself with the assumption of the new title.

This title had been out of use since the abdication of Napoleon I of France on 6 April Following the unification of most of Italy, tensions between the royalists and republicans erupted.

In April , Garibaldi entered the Italian parliament and challenged Cavour's leadership of the government, accusing him of dividing Italy and spoke of the threat of civil war between the Kingdom in the North and Garibaldi's forces in the South.

On 6 June , the Kingdom's strongman Cavour died. During the ensuing political instability, Garibaldi and the republicans became increasingly revolutionary in tone.

Garibaldi's arrest in set off worldwide controversy. In exchange, Prussia would allow Italy to annex Austrian-controlled Veneto.

Italy fared poorly in the war with a badly-organized military against Austria, but Prussia's victory allowed Italy to annex Veneto. At this point, one major obstacle to Italian unity remained: Italy benefited from Prussia's victory against France by being able to take over the Papal States from French authority.

Rome was captured by the Kingdom of Italy after several battles and guerilla-like warfare by Papal Zouaves and official troops of the Holy See against the Italian invaders.

Italian unification was completed and shortly afterward Italy's capital was moved to Rome. Economic conditions in the united Italy were poor.

The unification movement had largely been dependent on the support of foreign powers and remained so afterwards. Following the capture of Rome in from French forces of Napoleon III , Papal troops and Zouaves , relations between Italy and the Vatican remained sour for the next sixty years with the Popes declaring themselves to be prisoners in the Vatican.

The Roman Catholic Church frequently protested the actions of the secular and anticlerical-influenced Italian governments, refused to meet with envoys from the King and urged Roman Catholics not to vote in Italian elections.

A major challenge for the prime ministers of the new Kingdom of Italy was integrating the political and administrative systems of the seven different major components into a unified set of policies.

The different regions were proud of their own historic patterns and could not easily be fitted into the Sardinian model. Cavour started the planning, but died before it was fully developed—indeed, the challenges of administration the various bureaucracies are thought to have hastened his death.

The easiest challenge was to harmonize the administrative bureaucracies of Italy's regions. They practically all followed the Napoleonic precedent, so harmonization was straightforward.

The second challenge was to develop a parliamentary system. Cavour and most liberals up and down the peninsula highly admired the British system, so it became the model for Italy to this day.

Harmonizing the Army and Navy were much more complex, chiefly because the systems of recruiting soldiers and selecting and promoting officers were so different and needed to be grandfathered in over decades.

The disorganization helps explain why the Italian naval record in the war was so abysmal. The military system was slowly integrated over several decades.

The multiple educational system likewise proved complicated for there were few common elements. Shortly before his death, Cavour appointed Francesco De Sanctis as minister of education.

De Sanctis was an eminent scholar from the University of Naples who proved an able and patient administrator.

The addition of Veneto in and Rome in further complicated the challenges of bureaucratic coordination. Italian society after unification and throughout most of the Liberal Period was sharply divided along class, linguistic, regional and social lines.

On 20 September , the military forces of the King of Italy overthrew what little was left of the Papal States , capturing in particular the city of Rome.

The following year, the capital was moved from Florence to Rome. For the next 59 years after , the Church denied the legitimacy of the Italian King's dominion in Rome, which it claimed rightfully belonged to the Papal States.

In , the dispute was settled by the Lateran Treaty, in which the King recognized Vatican City as an independent state and paid a large sum of money to compensate the Church for the loss of the Papal States.

Liberal governments generally followed a policy of limiting the role of the Roman Catholic Church and its clergy as the state confiscated church lands.

Common cultural traits in Italy in this time were social conservative in nature, including a strong belief in the family as an institution and patriarchal values.

In other areas, Italian culture was divided: After unification, a number of descendents of former royal nobility became residents of Italy, comprising 7, noble families.

Many wealthy landowners maintained a feudal-like tight control over "their" peasants. Italian society in this period remained highly divided along regional and local sub-societies which often had historical rivalries with each other.

In , Italy lacked a single national language: Even the kingdom's first king, Victor Emmanuel II , was known to speak almost entirely in Piedmontese [ citation needed ] and French, even to his cabinet ministers.

Illiteracy was high, with the census indicating that This illiteracy rate was far higher than that of western European countries in the same time period and also no national popular press was possible due to the multiplicity of regional languages.

Italy had very few public schools upon unification, so the Italian government in the Liberal Period attempted to increase literacy by establishing state-funded schools to teach the official Italian language.

Living standards were low during the Liberal Period, especially in southern Italy, due to various diseases such as malaria and epidemics that occurred during the period.

As a whole, there was initially a high death rate in at 30 people dying per 1, people, though this reduced to In addition, the mortality rate of children dying in their first year after birth in was The mortality rate of children dying in their first year after birth decreased to an average of In terms of the entire period, Giovanni Federico has argued that Italy was not economically backward, for there was substantial development at various times between and Unlike most modern nations that relied on large corporations, industrial growth in Italy was a product of the entrepreneurial efforts of small, family-owned firms that succeeded in a local competitive environment.

Political unification did not systematically bring economic integration, as Italy faced serious economic problems and economic division along political, social and regional lines.

In the Liberal Period, Italy remained highly economically dependent on foreign trade and the international price of coal and grain.

Advances in technology, the sale of vast Church estates, foreign competition along with export opportunities rapidly transformed the agricultural sector in Italy shortly after unification.

However, these developments did not benefit all of Italy in this period, as southern Italy's agriculture suffered from hot summers and aridity damaged crops while the presence of malaria prevented cultivation of low-lying areas along Italy's Adriatic Sea coast.

The overwhelming attention paid to foreign policy alienated the agricultural community in Italy which had been in decline since Both radical and conservative forces in the Italian parliament demanded that the government investigate how to improve agriculture in Italy.

The investigation, which started in and was released eight years later, showed that agriculture was not improving, that landowners were earning revenue from their lands and contributing almost nothing to the development of the land.

Lower class Italians were hurt by the break-up of communal lands to the benefit of landlords. Most of the workers on the agricultural lands were not peasants , but short-term laborers "braccianti" who at best were employed for one year.

Peasants without stable income were forced to live off of meager food supplies, disease was spreading rapidly and plagues were reported, including a major cholera epidemic which killed at least 55, people.

The Italian government could not deal with the situation effectively because of overspending that left Italy heavily in debt. Italy also suffered economically as a consequence of overproduction of grapes by their vineyards.

In the s and s, France's vineyard industry was suffering from vine disease caused by insects. Italy prospered as the largest exporter of wine in Europe, but following the recovery of France in Southern Italy was overproducing and had to cut back, which caused greater unemployment and bankruptcies.

The Italian government invested heavily in developing railways in the s, more than doubling the existing length of railway line between and Italy's population remained severely divided between wealthy elites and impoverished workers, especially in the South.

An census found that over 1 million southern day-laborers were chronically under-employed and were very likely to become seasonal emigrants in order to economically sustain themselves.

From the s onward, intellectuals, scholars and politicians examined the economic and social conditions of Southern Italy "Il Mezzogiorno" , a movement known as meridionalismo "Meridionalism".

For example, the Commission of Inquiry into the South indicated that the Italian government thus far had failed to ameliorate the severe economic differences and the limitation of voting rights only to those with sufficient property allowed rich landowners to exploit the poor.

After unification, Italy's politics favored liberalism: In , Minghetti was ousted and replaced by liberal Agostino Depretis , who began the long Liberal Period.

The Liberal Period was marked by corruption, government instability, continued poverty in Southern Italy and use of authoritarian measures by the Italian government.

Depretis began his term as Prime Minister by initiating an experimental political notion known as trasformismo "transformism".

The theory of trasformismo was that a cabinet should select a variety of moderates and capable politicians from a non-partisan perspective.

In practice, trasformismo was authoritarian and corrupt as Depretis pressured districts to vote for his candidates, if they wished to gain favourable concessions from Depretis when in power.

The results of the Italian general election of resulted in only four representatives from the right being elected, allowing the government to be dominated by Depretis.

Despotic and corrupt actions are believed to be the key means in which Depretis managed to keep support in Southern Italy.

Depretis put through authoritarian measures, such as banning public meetings, placing "dangerous" individuals in internal exile on remote penal islands across Italy and adopting militarist policies.

Depretis enacted controversial legislation for the time, such as abolishing arrest for debt, making elementary education free and compulsory while ending compulsory religious teaching in elementary schools.

In , Francesco Crispi became Prime Minister and began focusing government efforts on foreign policy. Crispi worked to build Italy as a great world power through increased military expenditures, advocacy of expansionism [35] and trying to win the favor of Germany.

Italy joined the Triple Alliance which included both Germany and Austria—Hungary in and which remained officially intact until While helping Italy develop strategically, he continued trasformismo and became authoritarian, once suggesting the use of martial law to ban opposition parties.

Francesco Crispi was Prime Minister for a total of six years, from until and again from until Bosworth says of his foreign policy:.

Crispi pursued policies whose openly aggressive character would not be equaled until the days of the Fascist regime. Crispi increased military expenditure, talked cheerfully of a European conflagration, and alarmed his German or British friends with this suggestions of preventative attacks on his enemies.

His policies were ruinous, both for Italy's trade with France, and, more humiliatingly, for colonial ambitions in Eastern Africa.

Crispi's lust for territory there was thwarted when on 1 March , the armies of Ethiopian Emperor Menelik routed Italian forces at Adowa Crispi, whose private life he was perhaps a trigamist and personal finances Crispi greatly admired the United Kingdom, but was unable to get British assistance for his aggressive foreign policy and turned instead to Germany.

It remained officially intact until and prevented hostilities between Italy and Austria, which controlled border regions that Italy claimed.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, Italy emulated the Great Powers in acquiring colonies, especially in the scramble to take control of Africa that took place in the s.

Italy was weak in military and economic resources in comparison with Britain, France and Germany, but it proved difficult due to popular resistance and it was unprofitable due to heavy military costs and the lesser economic value of spheres of influence remaining when Italy began to colonize.

Britain was eager to block French influence and assisted Italy in gaining territory of the Red Sea. A number of colonial projects were undertaken by the government.

These were done to gain support of Italian nationalists and imperialists, who wanted to rebuild a Roman Empire.

Italy had already large settlements in Alexandria , Cairo and Tunis. Italy first attempted to gain colonies through negotiations with other world powers to make colonial concessions, but these negotiations failed.

Italy also sent missionaries to uncolonized lands to investigate the potential for Italian colonization. The most promising and realistic of these were parts of Africa.

Italian missionaries had already established a foothold at Massawa in present-day Eritrea in the s and had entered deep into the Ethiopian Empire.

The beginning of colonialism came in , shortly after the fall of Egyptian rule in Khartoum , when Italy landed soldiers at Massawa in East Africa.

In , Italy annexed Massawa by force, creating the colony of Italian Eritrea. The trade was promoted by the low duties paid on Italian trade. Italy exported manufactured products and imported coffee, beeswax and hides.

In , Ethiopia led by Emperor Menelik II abandoned an agreement signed in to follow Italian foreign policy and Italy used this renunciation as a reason to invade Ethiopia.

In response, Britain decided to back the Italians to challenge Russian influence in Africa and declared that all of Ethiopia was within the sphere of Italian interest.

On the verge of war, Italian militarism and nationalism reached a peak, with Italians flocking to the Royal Italian Army , hoping to take part in the upcoming war.

The Italian army failed on the battlefield and were overwhelmed by a huge Ethiopian army at the Battle of Adwa.

At that point, the Italian invasion force was forced to retreat into Eritrea. The failed Ethiopian campaign was an international embarrassment to Italy, as it was one of the few major military victories scored by the Africans against an imperial power at this time.

On 7 June , the concession was taken into Italian possession and administered by an Italian consul.

These provinces together formed what became known as Libya. The war ended only one year later, but the occupation resulted in acts of discrimination against Libyans such as the forced deportation of Libyans to the Tremiti Islands in October By , one third of these Libyan refugees had died from a lack of food and shelter.

Although his first government quickly collapsed one year later, Giolitti returned in to lead Italy's government during a fragmented period that lasted until Giolitti had spent his earlier life as a civil servant and then took positions within the cabinets of Crispi.

Giolitti was the first long-term Italian Prime Minister in many years because he mastered the political concept of trasformismo by manipulating, coercing and bribing officials to his side.

In elections during Giolitti's government voting fraud was common and Giolitti helped improve voting only in well-off, more supportive areas, while attempting to isolate and intimidate poor areas where opposition was strong.

In , Giolitti's government sent forces to occupy Libya. While the success of the Libyan War improved the status of the nationalists, it did not help Giolitti's administration as a whole.

The government attempted to discourage criticism by speaking about Italy's strategic achievements and inventiveness of their military in the war: Italy was the first country to use the airship for military purposes and undertook aerial bombing on the Ottoman forces.

Giolitti returned as Prime Minister only briefly in , but the era of liberalism was effectively over in Italy. The and elections saw gains made by Socialist, Catholic and nationalist parties at the expense of the traditionally dominant Liberals and Radicals , who were increasingly fractured and weakened as a result.

In the lead-up to World War I , the Kingdom of Italy faced a number of short-term and long-term problems in determining its allies and objectives.

Italy's recent success in occupying Libya as a result of the Italo-Turkish War had sparked tension with its Triple Alliance allies, the German Empire and Austria-Hungary , because both countries had been seeking closer relations with the Ottoman Empire.

In Munich, Germans reacted to Italy's aggression by singing anti-Italian songs. France felt betrayed by Italy's support of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War , opening the possibility of war erupting between the two countries.

These islands had been formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire. Italy and Greece were also in open rivalry over the desire to occupy Albania.

A major hindrance to Italy's decision on what to do about the war was the political instability throughout Italy in After the formation of the government of Prime Minister Antonio Salandra in March , the government attempted to win the support of nationalists and moved to the political right.

Militarist nationalists and anti-militarist leftists fought on the streets until the Italian Royal Army forcefully restored calm after having used thousands of men to put down the various protesting forces.

Despite Italy's official alliance to Germany and membership in the Triple Alliance , the Kingdom of Italy initially remained neutral, claiming that the Triple Alliance was only for defensive purposes.

In Italy, society was divided over the war: Italian socialists generally opposed the war and supported pacificism, while nationalists militantly supported the war.

Long-time nationalists Gabriele D'Annunzio and Luigi Federzoni and an obscure Marxist journalist and new convert to nationalist sentiment, future Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini , demanded that Italy join the war.

For nationalists, Italy had to maintain its alliance with the Central Powers in order to gain colonial territories at the expense of France. For the liberals, the war presented Italy a long-awaited opportunity to use an alliance with the Entente to gain certain Italian-populated and other territories from Austria-Hungary, which had long been part of Italian patriotic aims since unification.

In , relatives of Italian revolutionary and republican hero Giuseppe Garibaldi died on the battlefield of France, where they had volunteered to fight.

Federzoni used the memorial services to declare the importance of Italy joining the war and to warn the monarchy of the consequences of continued disunity in Italy if it did not:.

Italy has awaited this since her truly national war, in order to feel unified at last, renewed by the unanimous action and identical sacrifice of all her sons.

Today, while Italy still wavers before the necessity imposed by history, the name of Garibaldi, resanctified by blood, rises again to warn her that she will not be able to defeat the revolution save by fighting and winning her national war.

Mussolini used his new newspaper Il Popolo d'Italia and his strong oratorical skills to urge nationalists and patriotic revolutionary leftists to support Italy's entry into the war to gain back Italian populated territories from Austria-Hungary, by saying "enough of Libya , and on to Trento and Trieste ".

With nationalist sentiment firmly on the side of reclaiming Italian territories of Austria-Hungary, Italy entered negotiations with the Triple Entente.

The negotiations ended successfully in April when the London Pact was brokered with the Italian government. The pact ensured Italy the right to attain all Italian-populated lands it wanted from Austria-Hungary, as well as concessions in the Balkan Peninsula and suitable compensation for any territory gained by the United Kingdom and France from Germany in Africa.

Italy joined the Triple Entente in its war against Austria-Hungary. The reaction in Italy was divided: Giolitti claimed that Italy would fail in the war, predicting high numbers of mutinies, Austro-Hungarian occupation of even more Italian territory and that the failure would produce a catastrophic rebellion that would destroy the liberal-democratic monarchy and the liberal-democratic secular institutions of the state.

The outset of the campaign against Austria-Hungary looked to initially favor Italy: Austria-Hungary's army was spread to cover its fronts with Serbia and Russia and Italy had a numerical superiority against the Austro-Hungarian Army.

However, this advantage was never fully utilized because Italian military commander Luigi Cadorna insisted on a dangerous frontal assault against Austria-Hungary in an attempt to occupy the Slovenian plateau and Ljubljana.

This assault would put the Italian army not far away from Austria-Hungary's imperial capital, Vienna. After eleven failed offensives with enormous loss of life, the Italian campaign to take Vienna collapsed.

Upon entering the war, geography was also a difficulty for Italy as its border with Austria-Hungary was along mountainous terrain.

In May , Italian forces at , men along the border outnumbered the Austrian and Germans almost precisely four to one. Italy's warships were outclassed by the Austro-Hungarian fleet and the situation was made more dire for Italy in that both the French Navy and the British Royal Navy were not sent into the Adriatic Sea.

Their respective governments viewed the Adriatic Sea as "far too dangerous to operate in due the concentration of the Austro-Hungarian fleet there".

Morale fell among Italian soldiers who lived a tedious life when not on the front lines, as they were forbidden to enter theaters or bars, even when on leave.

However, when battles were about to occur alcohol was made freely available to the soldiers in order to reduce tension before the battle. In order to escape the tedium after battles, some groups of soldiers worked to create improvized whorehouses.

D'Annunzio himself would participate in a number of paramilitary raids on Austrian positions along the Adriatic Sea coastline during the war and temporaly lost his sight after an air raid.

The Italian government became increasingly aggravated in with the passive nature of the Serbian army , which had not engaged in a serious offensive against Austria-Hungary for months.

After , the situation for Italy grew steadily worse when the Austro-Hungarian Army managed to push the Italian Army back into Italy as far as Verona and Padova in their Strafexpedition.

At the same time, Italy faced a shortage of warships, increased attacks by submarines, soaring freight charges threatening the ability to supply food to soldiers, lack of raw materials and equipment and Italians faced high taxes to pay for the war.

Finally in November , Cadorna ended offensive operations and began a defensive approach. In , France, the United Kingdom and the United States offered to send troops to Italy to help it fend off the offensive of the Central Powers , but the Italian government refused as Sonnino did not want Italy to be seen as a client state of the Allies and preferred isolation as the more brave alternative.

The Russian Empire collapsed in a Russian Revolution , eventually resulting in the rise of the communist Bolshevik regime of Vladimir Lenin.

The resulting marginalization of the Eastern Front allowed for more Austro-Hungarian and German forces to arrive on the front against Italy.

Internal dissent against the war grew with increasingly poor economic and social conditions in Italy due to the strain of the war. Much of the profit of the war was being made in the cities, while rural areas were losing income.

After the Battle of Caporetto in , Italian forces were forced far back into Italian territory and the humiliation led to the arrival of Vittorio Emanuele Orlando as Prime Minister, who managed to solve some of Italy's wartime problems.

Orlando abandoned the previous isolationist approach to the war and increased coordination with the Allies and the use of the convoy system to fend off submarine attack, allowed Italy to be able to end food shortages from February onward and Italy received more raw materials from the Allies.

The Italian government was infuriated with the Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson , the President of the United States , as the advocation of national self-determination meant that Italy would not gain Dalmazia as had been promised in the Treaty of London.

The opposing armies repeatedly failed afterwards in major battles such as Battle of Asiago and the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. The Italian Army crushed the Austrian Army in the latter battle.

Austria-Hungary ended the fighting against Italy with the armistice on 4 November which ended World War I on this front one week before the widely understood 11 November armistice on the Western front.

During the war, the Italian Royal Army increased in size from 15, men in to , men in , with 5 million recruits in total entering service during the war.

Italian society was divided between the majority pacifists who opposed Italian involvement in the war and the minority of pro-war nationalists who had condemned the Italian government for not having immediately gone to war with Austria-Hungary in The talks provided little territorial gain to Italy because during the peace talks Wilson promised freedom to all European nationalities to form their own nation states.

Furthermore, the British and French decided to divide the German overseas colonies into mandates of their own, with Italy receiving none of them.

Italy also gained no territory from the breakup of the Ottoman Empire , despite a proposal being issued to Italy by the United Kingdom and France during the war, only to see these nations carve up the Ottoman Empire between themselves also exploting the forces of the Arab Revolt.

Despite this, Orlando agreed to sign the Treaty of Versailles, which caused uproar against his government. Civil unrest erupted in Italy between nationalists who supported the war effort and opposed the " mutilated victory " as nationalists referred to it and leftists who were opposed to the war.

Furious over the peace settlement, the Italian nationalist poet Gabriele D'Annunzio led disaffected war veterans and nationalists to form the Free State of Fiume in September His popularity among nationalists led him to be called Il Duce "The Leader" and he used blackshirted paramilitary in his assault on Fiume.

The leadership title of Duce and the blackshirt paramilitary uniform would later be adopted by the Fascist movement of Benito Mussolini. The demand for the Italian annexation of Fiume spread to all sides of the political spectrum, including Mussolini's Fascists.

Italy annexed territories that included not only ethnically-mixed places, but also exclusively ethnic Slovene and Croat places, especially within the former Austrian Littoral and the former Duchy of Carniola.

They included one-third of the entire territory inhabited by Slovenes at the time and one-quarter of the entire Slovene population, [88] who was during the 20 years long period of Italian Fascism — subjected to forced Italianization alongside 25, ethnic Germans.

According to author Paul N. Hehn, "the treaty left half a million Slavs inside Italy, while only a few hundred Italians in the fledgling Yugoslav i.

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes renamed Yugoslavia in state". Prior to World War I, Mussolini had opposed military conscription, protested against Italy's occupation of Libya and was the editor of the Socialist Party's official newspaper, Avanti!

During the war, Mussolini served in the Army and was wounded once. It was originally dominated by patriotic socialist and syndicalist veterans who opposed the pacifist policies of the Italian Socialist Party.

The Fascists initially had a platform far more inclined to the left, promising social revolution, proportional representation, women's suffrage partly realized in and dividing private property held by estates.

On 15 April , the Fascists made their debut in political violence, when a group of members from the Fasci di Combattimento attacked the offices of Avanti!

Recognizing the failures of the Fascists' initial revolutionary and left-leaning policy, Mussolini moved the organization away from the left and turned the revolutionary movement into an electoral movement in named the Partito Nazionale Fascista National Fascist Party.

The party echoed the nationalist themes of D'Annunzio and rejected parliamentary democracy while still operating within it in order to destroy it.

Mussolini changed his original revolutionary policies, such as moving away from anti-clericalism to supporting the Roman Catholic Church and abandoned his public opposition to the monarchy.

In , Giolitti had come back as Prime Minister in an attempt to solve the deadlock. One year later, Giolitti's government had already become unstable and a growing socialist opposition further endangered his government.

Giolitti believed that the Fascists could be toned down and used to protect the state from the socialists. Each Province or Holding offers different approach to the game.

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